8 Ways That Preschools Ignore Research in Early Childhood Education
Reality and Research Collide at Preschool
When college students graduate from the sheltered idealism of their campuses and enter the pragmatic, money-driven world of employment, they're often jolted by the disparity between the two. They quickly discover what they've learned in their classes, what their professors drilled into their heads, and what they studied for their exams don't hold much weight in the real world. Profits now mean more than philosophy and outdoing the competition trumps doing what's right. Nowhere is the difference between what's taught at college and what's applied in the real world more dramatically pronounced than early childhood education.
In this career field, college students learn one thing in their classes and must do nearly the opposite when they get hired at a preschool. Not only are they poorly compensated, they must forsake what they know is best for young children and do what's demanded of them by their bosses. It's often an untenable situation, leading to an extremely high turnover rate in the profession.
A Quality Preschool Is Not Academic
Today, parents of preschoolers are getting a boat-load of misinformation about what constitutes good practices in early childhood education. Many moms and dads are now convinced that the main goal of preschool is to prepare kids academically for kindergarten: reciting the alphabet, counting to 100, studying the calendar, sitting still for stories, and writing their names. They don't realize that mastering these narrow skills doesn't align with the latest findings in neuroscience. They don't understand that many preschools in the United States are doing the opposite of what the research dictates.
Research-Driven Information About Early Childhood Education
1. Early academics don't make smarter kids.
2. Kids learn most from exploring.
3. The best learning springs from curiosity.
4. Early academics limit learning.
5. Big picture skills matter most.
6. Early academics can turn off kids to learning.
7. Play is the foundation of learning.
8. Pretending promotes literacy.
1. Early Academics Don't Make Smarter Kids
Some preschool owners misrepresent the latest findings in brain research to stay competitive and turn a profit. For example, when research revealed that the brains of young children rapidly develop connections called synapses during the first three to four years of life, some opportunistic owners saw it as a marketing tool. They began describing their preschools with words and phrases such as: enriched, stimulating, academically rigorous, brain enhancing, guided by the latest in neuroscience, and the ideal place to maximize your youngster's learning potential.
They convinced unwitting moms and dads that a superior preschool is one that embraces early academics. They touted workbooks, flashcards, computers, STEM lessons, and teacher-directed learning. They promised that these would give kids a competitive edge, turning them into little geniuses and guaranteeing a future with early admissions to MIT and lucrative careers in Silicone Valley.
2. Kids Learn Most From Exploring
Patricia Wolfe sets the record straight about early learning and neuroscience in This brilliant book helped me build a developmentally appropriate curriculum for my students with a research-based explanation for why play was the nucleus, not academics. Therefore, I highly recommend it to all moms and dads, but especially those who are convinced that earlier is better when it comes to structured learning. Brain Matters: Translating Research Into Classroom Practice.
Correcting a common misconception, Wolfe explains that the more synapses children make during their early years doesn't mean that they'll become Einsteins. That's because youngsters prune synapses as they grow, trimming away the ones they don't need.
While some preschools entice parents by promising an enriched learning environment, Wolfe assures them that young children don't need super stimulating places to reach their potential. In fact, she says that the opposite is true based on the latest research. She writes “excessive use of flash cards, workbooks, language tapes, and 'educational' computer games is not only inappropriate, these games deprive children of the natural interaction with their world so important to development...there is no proof extra stimulation is necessary for cognitive or social growth.”
3. The Best Learning Springs From Curiosity
As Wolfe points out, children have all they need to learn within themselves: an innate curiosity, a robust imagination, and an intense desire to explore their surroundings. They don't need teachers to fill them up with knowledge.They don't need the latest technology, overpriced STEM sets, or elaborate phonics programs. What they do need are plenty of opportunities to interact with one another, ample time to investigate their environment (both indoors and out), and warm, loving teachers to support and guide them.
4. Early Academics Limit Learning
Sadly, play at preschool in the United States has became synonymous with wasted time. Too many uninformed moms and dads see it as frivolous and demand “real learning" with workbooks, computers, circle time, science projects, handwriting lessons, and alphabet activities. Moreover, they demand results with youngsters reciting the days of the week, recognizing patterns, tying their shoes, counting to 100, and knowing their letter sounds. They're interested in these narrow skills because they want their youngsters academically prepared for kindergarten. In the process, however, the broader and far more important skills that prepare them for life get minimized.
5. Big Picture Skills Matter Most
Most preschool owners are well aware of the research that supports play as the foundation for all learning. However, some buckle under to the demand for early academics that comes from politicians, elementary school administrators, and parents. As a result, teachers no longer emphasize the big picture skills that were once the cornerstone of early childhood education: getting along with others, working together as a team, solving problems, exploring new materials, dealing with conflict, developing curiosity, being persistent, and experiencing failure and frustration.
To stay in business and attract new clients, many preschool owners now offer academic activities that are developmentally inappropriate. Emphasizing these narrow skills has a long term negative impact on kids and on society as a whole. It limits time for far more consequential activities such as exploring, playing, and pretending. That, in turn, minimizes what matters most for our future workers, leaders, and citizens: critical thinking skills, people skills, creativity, curiosity, and initiative.
6. Academics Can Turn Off Kids To Learning
In (a book I frequently recommend to parents who are overly impressed by early academics), Dr. Nancy Carlsson-Paige makes the case for play at preschool. She decries our country's obsession with testing young children, assessing them, lecturing them, filling them with information, and pressuring them to learn too much too soon. She celebrates play as the way youngsters express their creativity, solve their problems, soothe their souls, and build friendships. Taking Back Childhood
While visiting preschools around the country, Carlsson-Paige said her heart broke when seeing far too many kids who were already disenchanted with school and turned off to learning. Through her decades-long career in early childhood education, she knows that youngsters learn best through purposeful experiences, plenty of time for play and exploration, and fun interactions with both peers and adults. She knows that early academics can come at a high price and says, "When children are taught things that they're not ready to learn, it can create feelings in them of confusion, anxiety, and inadequacy."
7. Play Is the Foundation of Learning
The United States is uniquely obsessed with the idea that earlier is better in preschool education. Other countries are far more mindful about celebrating each stage of a youngster's development. They have no desire for kids to rush through them, knowing how detrimental it is to their long-term mental and emotional well-being.
In Nova Scotia, Canada, for example, they recently revealed a new early learning framework with play as its centerpiece. In the document, play is described in the loftiest of terms: “one of the highest achievements of the human species...fostering capacities such as investigating, asking questions, creativity, solving problems and thinking critically... vital to building a wide range of competencies such as language development, self regulation, and conflict resolution.”
8. Pretending Promotes Literacy
Research shows that pretend play is not wasted time at all but vital for building literacy skills. A youngster who develops a robust vocabulary and strong communication skills at preschool is more likely to become a competent reader, writer, and speaker at elementary school. Talking, listening, and interacting with peers through pretend play is the most effective ways to achieve this goal.
Preschools need multiple areas for imaginative play: a kitchen where kids pretend to be chefs, a veterinary clinic where they treat sick animals, a landscaping business where they plant trees, bury bulbs, and arrange rocks. These create a rich interactive environment where language flourishes. As children ask each other questions, discuss and debate, and learn the importance of nonverbal cues, they become powerfully literate in a fun and age-appropriate way.
A professor discusses how play promotes reading, writing, and speaking.
Earlier Is Not Better
In Building the Reading Brain, co-authors Patricia Wolfe and Pamela Nevills warn against what has now become a reality: the so-called pushed down curriculum. This refers to what's happening in education today where what was once taught in first grade is now taught in kindergarten and what was once taught in kindergarten is now taught in preschool and so on.
They write that today's earlier is better approach is “based on a lack of understanding of the reading process, of children's brain development, and of the types of activities that are best suited for different ages.” They argue that linguistic awareness is best fostered in an organic way at preschool and home by reading poems, stories, and nursery rhymes, singing songs, listening to children's music, doing cooking and art projects, and having plenty of time for pretend play, exploration, and social interaction.
Contrary to popular belief, children's brains shouldn't be overloaded with information during the first five years of life. The practice of doing so at America's preschools represents a huge distortion of the research. It doesn't make kids any smarter and can turn them off to learning at a time when they should be fired up about it..
Questions & Answers
© 2018 McKenna Meyers