VirginiaLynne is an educator and mom of 5. Her Science Fair articles are from projects which competed successfully (local, state, national).
Help! My kids have to do a science project! Parents panic and wonder what to do, and sometimes, schools don't provide very clear guidelines on what is expected.
As an educator and a parent, I've written these instructions to help. My five kids started doing science projects in elementary school, where I was a Science Fair Coordinator for several years. My four older children have won 1st or 2nd place at the Regional Science Fair. My son won 2nd at State as a 7th grader. Along the way, I've learned a lot about what goes into a good science project and also learned how to make this an enjoyable process for both parents and kids.
This Article Includes:
1. Science Project Ideas
2. Science Fair 101: How Do You Do a Science Fair Project?
2. Choosing a Topic
4. Preparing Your Poster Board
Science Project Ideas
All of the projects below are original ideas done by my own children. Each one includes:
- Explanation of the scientific concept.
- Step-by-step instructions.
- Sample project format.
- Educational videos.
Here are the links to science fair projects for kids ranging from kindergarten to high school:
- Easy Kindergarten Floating Boats Project (K-3)
- How Long Can You Chew Gum? (Grades 2-6)
- How Does Salt Affect Seed Germination (Grade 7-12)
- Microbiology Science Project Kids: Fungus Among Us! (Grade 3-12)
- Which Chocolate Melts Faster? (Grade 3-6)
- Science Fair Project Using Lego Mindstorms Robot: Can a Robot Detect a Bomb? (Grade 7-12)
- Cupcake Science Fair Project (Grade 7-12)
- Skittles Science (Grade K-7)
- Easy Flower Experiment (Grade 7-12)
- Animal Science Experiment (Grade K-4)
- Quick Rolling Dice Experiment (Grade K-4)
- Chocolate Chip Tasting (Grade K-8)
- Easy Sports Medicine Project for Junior High (Grade 7-12)
- Arches and Domes (Grades K-4)
My husband, a biology professor, and I, an educator, developed each one in order to teach good science and yet also be fun and interesting to kids. Moreover, I always include some variations of our project to spur you on to some creative ideas for projects you can do too.
Science Fair 101: How Do You Do a Science Fair Project?
A science fair project is done to investigate something about the natural world—whether it is chemistry, biology, physics, psychology, or another area of science. Usually, a student starts with an interest in some topic. Next, they need to decide on a question that they could devise a test to answer.
Here are the eight basic steps to building a science project:
- Choose a topic (e.g. chemical solutions)
- Ask a question (e.g. Which solutions remove stains fastest?)
- Form a hypothesis, or a proposed explanation (e.g. Bleach removes stains fastest because it is a strong base.)
- Design a procedure to test that question (e.g. Compare bleach with other solutions, such as ordinary detergent, vinegar, hydrogen peroxide, etc.)
- Gather your materials
- Perform the experiment and record the results (e.g. Bleach was fastest, but all the other solutions had roughly equal stain-removing power.)
- Write a conclusion by comparing the results to your hypothesis. (e.g. The results were as I expected, but to my surprise, none of the other solutions were better than the other.)
- Discuss what went right and/or what went wrong. Suggest ideas for future experiments, or any changes you would make if you were to repeat the experiment. (e.g. In the future, I will test the same solutions on different types of stains or different fabrics.)
Any question that can be tested by a student will make a good project. So you might want to ask your kids if they have a question they are interested in exploring. Or you might want to have them look at the list of questions below to come up with some ideas.
As students do their experiments, they will take notes so that they can prepare a poster that describes their project. This poster will allow someone else to understand what did and what they learned. By the way, professional scientists share their work in exactly the same way at scientific conferences!
Science Questions for Elementary Students
- What color of candle burns the fastest?
- What kind of paper can float the longest?
- What shape of clay boat holds the most pennies before sinking?
- What happens to cookies when you leave out one ingredient?
- Which kind of soda do people really like the best? (blind taste test)
- Which kind of detergent washes the most stains out?
- What liquids in my house fizz when I add baking soda?
- What cleans a penny?
- How do different amounts of baking soda affect cookies?
- What food does my pet like best?
- How many seeds do different types of fruit produce?
- How do different style pencils or grips affect writing fatigue?
- What factors affect seed germination?
- What medium is best for seeds to sprout?
- What time of day does a hamster go through a maze faster?
- What type of food or type of birdfeeder attracts the most birds?
- How does smell affect the taste?
- Are the heart rates of different animals and people the same after exercise?
- Which gum lasts the longest?
- What product works best to stop stinky feet?
- What temperature makes bread mold grow faster?
- How does egg substitute (or sugar substitute) change recipes?
- Which detergent is best for removing stains?
- What type of paper makes the best paper airplane?
- What is the best type of cup to keep drinks hot? Cold?
- Which type of chocolate melts fastest under a hot light?
How Do You Make a Science Fair Board?
How do you prepare a poster? This is the question I get most often as a science fair coordinator. I encourage parents to use the same basic format that real scientists use on their posters (for our school fair, I try to bring one of my husband's biology research posters to show as an example).
At conferences, scientists show their work by giving talks with a slideshow or by standing next to a poster and describing their work, just as kids do with theirs. So this experience is one that will teach them how the process really works.
Generally, displays for school science fairs are tri-fold, which means that they are folded on either side so that they can stand up for easier viewing. In most fairs, your board can be up to 36 inches wide and 14 inches tall. You can find the trifold boards available at most office supply stores and at some Walmarts, grocery stores, drug stores, and craft stores.
You can also make your own board by layering a large poster board over a piece of cardboard. If you make your own board, you should probably make three separate pieces and use duct tape to hold them together so they will bend.
Board Format and Layout
A general guide for what elements the judges will be looking for is the following:
- Title (This could be your question—or something to make your audience interested in your topic).
- Question (State your question clearly and explain how you got interested in this question).
- Hypothesis (This is your guess of the answer to your question. Tell why you think this will be the result.)
- Procedures (the plan for testing your question and why you chose this plan).
- Materials and Equipment (a list of what you will need for your experiment).
- Results and Data (Your description of what happened when you did your experiment. You should include any graphs or charts which help show your results).
- Conclusion (This is where you explain what happened, and tell whether your guess was correct or not. This is also where you can explain why you got the results you did. If you did your experiment again, would you change anything?)
- Resources (Who helped you? What books or websites gave you ideas?)
- Personal Information: Your name, grade, and teacher.
These elements can usually be organized as you please, as long as they follow a logical order. Some schools or fairs may have guidelines on what they expect, so it wouldn't hurt to ask ahead of time.
A typical layout is as follows: the title is centered at the top in large, readable font to catch people's attention. The question, hypothesis, materials, and procedures are usually on the left panel, while the data, conclusion, resources, and personal information are on the right panel. The center is reserved for pictures of your experiment and your main results.
Tips for Succeeding at Science Fairs
- Journal as You Go: As you are working through each stage of your information, be sure you keep a notebook or journal of your process. You can jot down anything you do, including notes you take in finding your topic as well as charts you keep while doing your experiment. Be sure you include all of the parts listed below (like hypothesis, materials etc.). Many science fairs want you to show your journal as part of your project. Real scientists need to keep a bound and dated journal written in pen so that they can prove they really did the work and explain the steps they completed.
- Type Your Results for Your Board: It is a lot easier for you to type your information and titles for each part of your report on a separate piece of paper and then paste or tape this paper onto your poster board rather than printing on the board itself. Often, it is easier to do this on a computer. You can use color, bold fonts, and clip art, but remember to keep your poster very readable with the letters sized so that they can be read by a person standing a couple of feet away. Print it out and hold it up about a yard away. Can you read it? You don't want the judge to miss something because they can't see what you wrote. Don't make the font hard to read either. Fonts like Euro-style, Ariel, or Times New Roman are good to use. Make sure each of your topics has a bold headline (Hypothesis, Results etc.)
- Keep Your Camera on Hand: Your poster will be more interesting if you include some pictures you take while doing your experiment or use clip art pictures or pictures you draw. I always have my camera out when the kids are doing the experiment. I take a picture of all the materials they use as well as pictures of them doing the experiment. Keep a camera on hand to show the process. Take a picture of all the materials, for instance. Take pictures at each stage of the process and take pictures at the end. Print the pictures out to use on your board.
- Use Color!: You can choose a colorful board if it is allowed at your school. You can also include color by putting your printed work on construction paper, colored card stock or scrapbook paper. Your title can be cut out letters, or printed out large-font writing. Some students use stickers, colored paper or cut out letters to make their poster more attractive. If the rules from your school allow it, you can also bring some of the examples from your experiment to put in front of your poster if that is appropriate. Sometimes, students also use bulletin board edging around the borders of their posters.
- How to Put it All Together: For best results, lay out everything on your board without gluing or taping down first. Generally, you will put the title at the top; the hypothesis, materials and procedures on the right side; the results and data in the middle; and the conclusion, resources and personal information on the right side. Of course, you will need to adjust this depending on the size of each section. Attach the printed information onto the colored paper with glue sticks or glue dots (glue dots can be found in hobby stores in the scrapbooking aisle). Glue dots stick the best. White glue can be used, but it may make the paper wrinkle, and it may not be possible to change anything. Glue dots and glue sticks can often be taken off and changed around more easily.
- Maximize Your Space: You may need to play around with it, but you want the fonts and pictures to be as large as possible. It's always easier on the eyes to be able to read and see everything from a few feet back.
- How About Parent Help? Students should do as much of the work as possible at their age level. Check the requirements for your school, but generally, the information on the poster can be hand-written or typed. For most schools (and even our regional and state science fair in Texas), it is alright for parents to type up their children’s notes or oral explanations of their projects; however, they should be sure that the child tells them what to write.
- Practice Talking About Your Project: It is important to make sure that your child can explain everything they did to the judges. The poster is only half of the presentation. The other half is the child doing the actual talking. Although they did all the critical thinking and hard work, it may not be so easy explaining it to someone else, so practicing a brief presentation is recommended. Usually, I have my kids practice explaining what they did to me and to their brothers and sisters. The presentation should only be about 8-10 minutes with time for questions.
How Does Judging Work?
Elementary School Level
A lot of work goes into science fair projects, and all students deserve to have that work rewarded. Our elementary school science fair does not award 1st, 2nd or 3rd. Instead, each child is judged according to what is best about their project (thoughtful process, good scientific thinking, etc.) and awarded a blue ribbon reflecting their achievement as well as a sheet of comments from the judge. The goal at this level is to pique students' interest in science and to teach students the scientific process, critical thinking, hands-on learning, and presentation skills.
Middle and High School Level
At the middle and high school level, fairs are a little more competitive, and students are judged based on their scientific thinking, reasoning, and possibly their ability to relate their project to a bigger picture. In our district, students are judged at school and can also go on to regional and state fairs. Following the procedures I've described above, both of my older children won at their school and regional every year they have competed. One year, my son also won 2nd at state. If you follow my steps, your project should be among the best at your school too.
How to Prepare for the Science Fair Judge
Everyone involved in a science fair can tell you that judging is a lot of work. The judges do that work because they believe the science fair is a way of encouraging kids to go into STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) careers. While judges want to evaluate the students, they also generally want to encourage them and give them a chance to explain what they have done and what they have learned. The best way to prepare for the judge is to practice telling people about your project.
A parent or friend could help you practice by asking these sorts of questions:
- How did you get interested in this topic?
- What question did you ask?
- What experiment did you do to try to answer your question?
- What did you think was going to happen in your experiment?
- What happened? Were you surprised by the results?
- If you were going to do the experiment again, would you change anything?
- What was most interesting to you about your project?
- What part did you do? What did you get help with?
- What did you learn?
Science Project Website Reviews
There are many websites available to help students and parents do science projects. You can also get one of the books I've suggested. Here is a short review of some of the best science fair websites
Science Buddies: Science Buddies is an excellent site to go to for help with your project. Their “topic selection wizard” allows you to answer a series of questions to help you narrow down projects your child would enjoy. This site also rates projects by grade level and provides background scientific information as well as complete instructions for how to do the experiment.
All Science Fair Projects: All-Science Fair Projects offers a collection of ideas taken from other websites. You can browse by interest and ability level. Because many of the contributions come from third-party websites, the quality of the information can vary, but if you have an area you are interested in, you might want to check out the projects on this site for ideas.
Home Training Tools: Science Fair: This page on the Home Training Tools site offers some excellent and easy science fair projects with clear instructions and illustrations. Note: this is a company that does sell items for projects but most of the instructions on this page can be done with materials found at home or at the supermarket.
The Discovery Education Center Science Fair Central: The Discovery Education center gives many ideas for easy science fair questions for elementary students. It also guides students through the process of creating their projects. Unlike some of the other sites, this does not give full instructions for projects, but questions like, “Which type of paper makes the best paper airplane?” are fairly easy for students to do on their own.
Worth the Effort?
Participating in Science Fair is a great experience for kids, but it can be a lot of work for everyone. Is it worth it? Watching our children go through the process from kindergarten to high school, my husband and I are sure it is. Remember that the very best jobs are in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) areas and that doing a science project can encourage your kids to go on to a career in those areas. Moreover, there are a lot of scholarships available for kids who go in that direction.
So take a deep breath and enjoy the adventure of learning about science with your kids. Taking time to encourage them in this project can be well worth the effort. Have fun!
Do you have an idea for a science fair project or an experience in a science fair? I'd love for you to share in the comments!
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
Questions & Answers
Question: How do I organize my poster?
Answer: The best way to organize is to use the format provided by your teacher. Usually this means you do it in this order:
Sometimes there are other parts that an instructor will ask you to provide. Be sure to ask them what they want.
Question: How do you make a bar graph?
Answer: You can make a good bar graph by using a ruler and some graph paper. Use different colors for each of the bars. The graph paper squares will help you make straight lines.
Question: Is the background investigation important?
Answer: One thing you will need to think about as you put your board together is how much space you will allocate for the different aspects of your project. You want your board to be easy for a judge or someone else to read, so the font needs to be big enough that someone doesn't have to squint and can scan easily. That also means that things like the background investigation needs to be considered carefully. If the information is meaningful, you need to include it. For example, you might want to add background research or thinking if it:
1. Explains why you chose this project or the method.
2. Gives information that someone else needs to know which explains the science behind your project.
3. Explains the importance of your science project to a real-life product, problem, or situation.
The short answer is that the background research is essential for you to design your project carefully, and you will need to have that information in your notebook. However, you don't need to put it on your board unless the person looking at your experiment needs to know it to understand or appreciate what you have done.
Question: What question can I make out of my title if my title is how rocks interact with different substances?
Answer: How Do Rocks Interact?
Do Rocks Change?
What Makes Rocks Change?
Question: What kind of pictures do you include in your poster?
Answer: Usually the best pictures are either ones which show some part of the experiment, or pictures showing you doing the experiment. For younger children, it can be a good idea for them to draw what they see as part of their data. That is an especially good idea for K-1st-grade students. That way they can participate in the poster and feel like it is their work, even if they cannot write up the project by themselves.
Question: My son wanted to do the milk and soap experiment to see which soap did the best design. Is this a good stem project for 4th grade?
Answer: In fourth grade, students are generally able to follow a scientific method mostly on their own if their basic experiment leads clear results. The problem with the project you outline is that "best design" isn't really something that can be measured objectively. It would be possible to do this experiment just to see what happens and how different types of soap changes the experiment, but that project would probably work better for K-2 since the goal at that grade is more about exploring and finding out what happens than in carefully predicting. I think that this is not the best project for a 4th grader, but if he still wants to do it, he needs to make some predictions for each soap he tests and then compare the results to his predictions.
Question: What do you do first when beginning an Elementary science fair project?
Answer: The first thing we always do when getting started is put the board together. Then, we type out the whole project on a computer or to write it neatly on note paper. This way, you can see how much text you have to fit on the board. Also, using a computer lets you change the font type and size. Then we print everything out, cut out each section and place it on the board. Next, we put on the headline, the pictures, and any tables or graphs. We don't glue anything down until we've placed it all on the board first and made sure it fits and looks good. Generally, if we are putting a colored matt around anything on the board, we do that before gluing. Finally, we've found that rubber cement works very well to glue things down flat.
Question: When conducting a tasting or smelling experiment, can you write the actual product name or do we use product 1, product 2, product 3?
Answer: When experimenting with people who are tasting, smelling or in some other way using products, you should probably not identify them by brand name. However, on the final board, you probably do want to identify them because that will probably be important in your discussion of the results and the conclusion.
Question: Is the tri-fold poster with an attachable header a good idea?
Answer: My daughter used this format of poster for the first time last year when she entered a High School science fair. The advantage of this sort of poster is that you can highlight the title of the project and you have more room for the rest of your information. When you have a lot of data to present, you probably should choose a detachable header, but for most elementary science fair projects, a regular tri-fold is easier and gives plenty of room.
Two good girls! on November 15, 2019:
This really helped with our science fair project. Thanks a lot! Thanks for your time helping everyone! I bet a lot of people used this this website and LOVED I!
Dont need to say on January 15, 2019:
Thank you so much very helpful
Izzy on December 12, 2018:
This has been very helpful in organizing my science fair project!
[not saying] on November 17, 2018:
this is really helpful I would've had no project if it wasn't for this site
Zoi Bushup on May 21, 2018:
This site really helped,THANKS!
Diane on January 14, 2018:
Thank you my granddaughter has a science project for 4th grade. Her question do volcanoes smell. This lay out is excellent. Now I understand how to help her. Diane
Walker on January 14, 2018:
This so amazing it real help me find what I am doing for my science project
Rachael on July 16, 2017:
Thankyou this is awsome to help my daughter plan her project and to ensure that she gets all the required information that she needs.
she is doing a "chemical verse Natural" house hold cleaning products.
Kayla on March 15, 2017:
Awesome article. I did science fair projects in elementary but that was years ago. I was so rusty on what I needed to do. This article helped me so much! thank you
aaaa on December 15, 2015:
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on May 03, 2015:
The best place to start is my article about Parent Resources for Science Fair. It includes a simple science project called "Can this Boat Float?" Another easy one is my Dice science project or the chewing gum experiment. See my articles for instructions. Find them by using the search bar or looking at my profile page.
T R Upshur from United States on September 24, 2014:
I so could have used this last year! Thank you. I will be using it for this year.
ragingtepig on January 13, 2014:
Thank you! This is just what I needed!
Adityapullagurla on January 10, 2014:
Amazing write up random creative. Your hub is useful and i hope all teachers really find this hub very informative.
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on May 01, 2013:
You might want to look at my other articles on specific science projects. Some of them can be easily done in a day, like "arches and domes," "how long does chewing gum last," and "which chocolate melts the fastest."
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on March 21, 2013:
Kelsie--Thank you so very much for coming back to tell me that my work helped you. That means a lot to me. I so want students to enjoy doing a science fair project and to make it less of a burden on parents. Thanks again!
Kelsie on March 21, 2013:
Thank you so much!! I never did science fairs growing up by my oldest daughter wanted to enter this year and i didn't even know where to start! i found your articles, and my daughter was very intrigued by one the ideas you gave so we went with it. She had a blast and we then followed your guidelines for how to set up a poster and she just won first place at her science fair today!!! I'm a proud mama! But we couldn't have done it without the help we found here. :)
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on February 19, 2013:
So glad I helped you Brandon! Your project sounds very interesting. We like using CFL bulbs ourselves to save energy but have had trouble with them burning out. Recently, I heard that they don't like being placed with the blast above the light. All our light fixtures face down, so that is probably our problem. I'd love to hear about a science experiment on that!
Brandon on February 18, 2013:
My project is finding which light bulb is more efficient using a watt and amp reader. The 3 bulbs are a traditional incandescent, halogen incandescent, and a CFL. I have a bar graph for both watts and amps, but your 3 paragraph answer helped enough! Thankyou Virginia, and I'll use this website again!
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on February 17, 2013:
Hi Brandon--Good question. You describe the results by just telling what happened. It helps a lot if you make a chart of what you do. If you look at some of the projects I have links for, you can see some of the charts my kids have done. If you tell me what your project is, I can probably give you a more specific answer. For example, if you are trying to figure out which chewing gum lasts th longest, you should make a chart which has the different kinds of chewing gum on one side in a row, then the different people who are chewing at the top. You would give each person the first kind of gum and then set a stopwatch and tell everyone to "go." Have them chew until the taste is gone. Then look at your stopwatch when they say the taste is out, mark down the time. Do that for each person. That chart is part of your results. The other part of the results is that you look at your hypothesis (what you thought was going to happen) and then at the results and you think about them, and write down whether your guess was right or wrong. Did something surprise you? The last part to write is to tell what you would do if you were going to continue the experiment or try something to test in a different way. For example, if in the gum experiment you used different brands of gum, you might say you would try next taking one brand and trying all the different flavors.
Brandon on February 17, 2013:
This helps so much, but one of my problems is that I don't know how to describe the results. Can you explain it a bit more for me. I'm a fifth grader doing my first science fair project.
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on October 11, 2012:
Thank you so much miao for coming to tell me this! You've made my day. I actually have several more projects that I need to type up and post. You've given me the inspiration to do so!
miaocseansagailele on October 10, 2012:
I cant seem to find anything for my child to do for her science fair i've been looking, searching, asking and nothing but then i found this and BAM my kid WON the science fair for 3 years strait because of this website thanks sooooooooooooo much
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on September 14, 2012:
Science Siblings: I checked the video out and it does go over the information I give in a fun way, although it drags a bit at times and is a little long at 15 minutes. However, it could be a good video to use to show to a class to get the main points across on how to do a project the right way. Thanks!
heartexpressions on September 08, 2012:
Thanks for this hub. I'm book marking it as we are in the midst of a science fair project.
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on February 25, 2012:
Baku--thanks for the comment-- I always appreciate people who tell me something that needs to be added to a Hub. What we do in putting our board together is to put the pictures and the printed information onto colored cardstock (construction paper, scrapbooking paper or any other colored paper would work fine too). We usually use glue sticks or scrapbooking glue dots for this. White glue will generally make your paper wrinkle up, so glue sticks are better. However, glue sticks are not all the same and some of them will not stick well enough and you may find pieces falling off. That is were glue dots (which you find in the scrapbooking section of the hobby store) are the best. You can also staple these together. Next, you need to attach these papers to your board. I sometimes staple them, or use glue dots or glue sticks again. Line them up on the board first before you stick them down so that you know you have enough room. Use some of the poster pictures I've shown to see how to lay them out. The title is usually at the top and bigger so that it catches the eye. Good luck!
Baku on February 25, 2012:
This did not really help really help on my question I wanted do was put the construction paper on my science fair board.
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on December 07, 2011:
MS Mom--great question. I probably need to do a hub to answer that. Generally, I start my kids off by giving them some ideas of topics and telling them they have to make it a question. Scientists ask questions and then think of answers and try their answers out. You could even formulate the board that way: My question, my guess, what I did to find out, What stuff I used. What Happened?, Was I right? What I would do next. For my littlest kids, I usually did the writing for them and prompted them with the questions they needed. I'd have them do most or all of the actual work on the project, but I would help them by explaining why we needed to do each step. I think of these early science experiments as really a way for parents to help teach their kids and to get them excited. For the crystals, I think you could try the sugar and salt crystal experiments. Look them up online. There may be other ways to make crystals too. I think you can do it with Borax.