How Full Inclusion in Special Education Fails All Students

Updated on October 15, 2019
letstalkabouteduc profile image

With a master's degree in special education and a son with autism, Ms. Meyers is passionate about getting services for students in need.

The idea that children with autism, ADHD, and learning differences don't need specialized help is the biggest lie in special education.
The idea that children with autism, ADHD, and learning differences don't need specialized help is the biggest lie in special education. | Source

The Long-Term Negative Impact of Full Inclusion

Today, school officials push full inclusion as the miracle cure in special education: the one-size-fits-all for autism, ADHD, behavioral issues, emotional problems, and learning differences. They love to recite its virtues: that all students are treated the same and don't have to suffer the stigma from receiving special help outside the regular classroom. What school officials fail to mention is that full inclusion is primarily a cost-saving device and has long-term negative consequences for students, families, and society as a whole.

  • Did you know that full inclusion in special education can promote "learned helplessness" in children?
  • Did you know it can contribute to long-term societal problems such as increased mental illness, more homelessness, and higher drop-out rates?
  • Did you know fill inclusion is "penny wise, pound foolish" as early intervention services can prevent the need for more costly ones in elementary, middle, and high school?
  • Did you know that small group direct instruction has been proven highly effective with special needs students and is what many of them need to succeed at school?

Fair doesn't mean giving every child the same thing, it means giving each child what they need.

— Richard Lavoie, long-time advocate for children with special needs

Don't Buy the Inclusion Lie

The idea that full inclusion in special education is all students need is a lie. If parents buy into it, they're signing away their children's opportunity to receive the unique services they deserve: speech and occupational therapies, small group activities, one-on-one tutoring, and direct instruction.

Moms and dads should understand that inclusion is not a comprehensive program to help youngsters succeed at school; it's not a program at all but merely a cost-saving measure. If they want what's best for their youngsters, they must fight hard for special services through the public schools or secure them in the private sector. To illustrate how the inclusion lie works, a familiar tale from childhood serves to explain.

The Inclusion Lie and The Emperor's New Clothes

Remember the tale from childhood called The Emperor's New Clothes by Hans Christian Andersen? Pretending they were gifted weavers, two swindlers arrived in town to con the emperor and his staff. They convinced the townspeople that they made fabulous clothes that were the envy of everyone.

They cleverly added one warning: those who were stupid or unfit for their jobs wouldn't be able to see the stunning clothes. To the eyes of these foolish folks, they'd be invisible. Thus, person after person complimented the emperor's non-existent wardrobe, not wanting to seem dumb and incompetent. When the emperor paraded down the road, a little boy, in all his innocence, shouted the truth: “Hey, he's naked!”

Full Inclusion: There's Nothing There!

Full inclusion is just like the emperor's new clothes—there's nothing there! School officials, just like the two swindlers, convince parents they're getting something spectacular for their children when, in fact, they're getting nothing at all.

While they peddle full inclusion to save money, their practice is actually penny wise, pound foolish. Yes, school districts save money on early intervention services for young children but then need to shell out even more funds later on when these youngsters struggle in elementary, middle, and high school. The lack of early intervention services leads to grave societal problems: higher drop-out rates, greater rates of mental illness, and more homelessness.

Full inclusion in special education costs in the long-haul with higher drop-out rates, more mental illness, and increased homelessness.
Full inclusion in special education costs in the long-haul with higher drop-out rates, more mental illness, and increased homelessness. | Source

What's learned helplessness?

Psychologists have studied this behavior in both animals and humans. Their research results show that, when put in situations where they have no control, both animals and people will eventually give up and surrender. Even when conditions improve, they still feel powerless, accept their fate, and take no action to change their circumstances.

Full Inclusion and Learned Helplessness

Imagine your family moved to Moscow when you were 8-years-old and you attended school without knowing one word of Russian. That's how many children with special needs feel in regular classrooms today in the US. Their teachers speak too rapidly, and they can't process their words fast enough. Classmates move around the room—engaging effortlessly in cooperative learning tasks and group projects—while they struggle to keep up with all the social communication swirling around them: both verbal and non-verbal. The class moves at break-neck speed, and it's overwhelming.

Full inclusion in the regular classroom leaves many students with special needs anxious, tense, frustrated, confused, and defeated. They start to feel invisible as nobody seems to notice or care how lost they are. They become a casualty of learned helplessness and give up trying. Even when they can answer the teacher's questions, they might say “I don't know” because they've given up hope. Sadly, this can begin as early as preschool or kindergarten.

Overwhelmed teachers are finally speaking out about the problems with full inclusion that affect all students.

When I read or am told that this child is 'low functioning' it tells me right away that the adults in this child's life have not done enough problem solving to discover what supports the child needs in order to be successful. Calling a child 'low functioning' is, to me, actually an adult saying, 'He's too tricky, we have no idea what he needs and when he needs it.'

— Mary Louise Betram, educator and consultant for students with special needs

The Many Benefits of Small Group Direct Instruction

The benefits of small group direct instruction in special education are too numerous to list but here are some:

  • It lets teachers target the specific areas where students need extra help: doing long division, learning to decode, holding a pencil correctly. It allows for drill and repetition until the skill is mastered.
  • In "The Disadvantages of a Full-Inclusion Classroom," author Dean Traylor makes the case that full inclusion can work well with students whose needs are mild to moderate. However, those with severe needs are better served outside the regular classroom for all or part of the school day.
  • Dr. Jerome Rosner, author of Helping Children Overcome Learning Difficulties, argues that youngsters with special needs require “explicit, unambiguous instruction.” They need more drill and practice, especially in key subjects such as math and reading, and that can't happen in a regular classroom with 20 or more other students.
  • When children act out in the regular classroom, it's often a cry for help. They're saying: "Notice me. I'm drowning here. I need help." Small group direct instruction is the appropriate response to their cries. Keeping them in the regular classroom all day is cruel, unfair, and will make them fall further behind their peers.
  • Being in a regular classroom all day can wear on students with special needs. Small group direct instruction gives them a break from that anxiety-inducing environment. With fewer students in the room, they feel more comfortable to ask questions, request help, and interact with the teacher and fellow students.

This video shows how an elementary school meets the needs of all its students with small group and one-on-one instruction, not just inclusion.

What do you think?

In your opinion, why do parents of children with special needs not fight for small group direct instruction?

See results
Ten Things Every Child with Autism Wishes You Knew: Updated and Expanded Edition
Ten Things Every Child with Autism Wishes You Knew: Updated and Expanded Edition

When my son was diagnosed with autism, I turned to my mother for comfort and support and found neither. Like so many parents who have kids on the spectrum, I felt isolated, overwhelmed, and confused. Fortunately, my son's occupational therapist recommended this wonderful book to me that is warm, funny, and oh-so understanding. It's written by a mom who has a son with autism and ADHD, and it was just what I needed: informative, compassionate, and hopeful. It's on my bedside table, my companion during this journey so I no longer feel alone.


Questions & Answers

    © 2015 McKenna Meyers


      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment
      • letstalkabouteduc profile imageAUTHOR

        McKenna Meyers 

        5 months ago

        Thanks so much for your input and your years of dedication to special education. Sadly, the full inclusion crowd has control right now, and they are a militant bunch that lacks common sense. They're worshipping the notion of full inclusion rather than looking at the individual needs of each child. I have a son with autism, and I'm so thankful that he attended elementary school before the full inclusion movement grew. I'm grateful for the direct instruction he received, the small group work, and the speech and occupational therapies. His teachers and therapists were amazing professionals who helped him make enormous strides in a short amount of time. He never would have been able to do that in a class with 25 other kids. When he reached third grade, he was in a regular classroom full-time (only needing to leave twice a week for speech). An early investment of time and resources definitely pays off for our kids and parents should definitely fight for it. Furthermore, we should not be putting so much on the shoulders of our classroom teachers. They need more support, not less.

      • profile image


        5 months ago

        I agree with everything in this article. I’ve been a Special Education teacher for 31 years. The benefits of small group direct instruction are invaluable! My New York district is beginning full inclusion with students that I know are going to be lost, left behind,become behavior problems and simply not learn all they are capable of learning. Our new director acts as if specially designed instruction provided in a small group is the worst thing you can do for special needs children. To take them out of the mainstream is cruel according to our districts new programming. This makes me very sad as the pendulum swings back to not recognizing students individual needs.

      • letstalkabouteduc profile imageAUTHOR

        McKenna Meyers 

        11 months ago

        That really means something coming from you, kariamor, a mother of a child with Down syndrome. I hope parents will heed my warning about inclusion and push for the services their youngsters need, especially during those critical first five years. Thanks for your support!

      • profile image 

        11 months ago

        Am a social worker and a parent of a child with down syndrome. I agree with you!!!!!

      • letstalkabouteduc profile imageAUTHOR

        McKenna Meyers 

        17 months ago

        Well, Wilson, your point of view is way more extreme than mine, but I must say I'm wary of the government's current expansion into early childhood education. As experts in the field know, preschool is not just another year of schooling; it's quite unique because kids need hands-on experiences, lots of play, and time to explore. The government's focus on "academic rigor" in preschool is preposterous, not developmentally appropriate, and cruel to young children.

        As for early intervention services, I think the government can make a huge difference for the better, especially during the first 5 years. However, we need professionals to be working directly with the kids and not just visiting the preschools with clipboards in hand, observing and documenting. The first 5 years are when a child's brain is malleable and a lot of progress can be made. It's a good investment of time and money.

      • profile image

        wilson todd 

        17 months ago

        i say get rid of the schools and get goverment out of are schools

      • letstalkabouteduc profile imageAUTHOR

        McKenna Meyers 

        17 months ago

        I agree with you, Nicola. When my autistic son was little, he had a spectacular speech therapist and an awesome occupational therapist who made all the difference in the world to him and me. But this was in California where the philosophy about early intervention services is very different from many places like Oregon where I now live. The professionals in California were able to make an impact because California strongly believes that the first five years are the best opportunity to make a difference in a child's life. Their programs are all about investing time and money in those early years. Places such as Oregon have talented and compassionate professionals, too, but with limited resources and a myopic approach on inclusion, they're not allowed to fully use their knowledge and abilities. Thanks so much for sharing your thoughts on the matter. I hope you and your son are doing well.

      • profile image

        Nicola Hunt 

        17 months ago

        I found your statements thought provoking and found myself thinking about this for a while.

        I am left feeling quite sure that Inclusion is only as effective as the school, nursery or practitioner/teacher implementing it. If individual people do not understand what good inclusive practice looks like they wont be putting it into practice.

        Sometimes, not always, it is individuals that make the most difference to a child's learning and development not the level of funding.

        I have a son with ASD and he has a EHCP - this is not what made the difference, individuals did.

      • letstalkabouteduc profile imageAUTHOR

        McKenna Meyers 

        3 years ago

        Thanks so much for your thoughtful comments and your work with special needs kids. I agree with you. My son has autism. Who he was at four -- a timid boy who was always stimming, unable to make eye contact, and hypersensitive to touch and sound -- does not at all resemble the confident and competent high school student he is today. He always received full inclusion, but he also got speech and occupational therapies, and I'm forever grateful for that.

      • profile image

        Lady Lilith 

        3 years ago

        Working with special needs kids, I will have to say I mostly agree with you. All in all, it depends on the child. I have seen children who are fully included with services at home thrive. I have also seen childen in special education classes fail. I think the most important key is to have a good support group who is always looking for the best in the child. Who the child is today, might not be who they are tomorrow.

      • letstalkabouteduc profile imageAUTHOR

        McKenna Meyers 

        3 years ago

        Thanks for the support, Bill. I hope someone will benefit from what I learned along the way with my autistic son. He received awesome early intervention services and is doing so well now. I want every kid to have that same experience.

      • billybuc profile image

        Bill Holland 

        3 years ago from Olympia, WA

        Call it like it is...good for you. Keep screaming from the rooftops. Parents need to know this.


      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

      Show Details
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
      ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)