How to Reduce Challenging Behaviours in Children Using Functional Assessment

Updated on May 10, 2017
Renee Irving-Lee profile image

Renee has a diverse background in Education in a variety of settings; including Early Childhood, Special Education and Tertiary Studies.

Does your child throw major tantrums? Run away when out? Refuse to share? Do they whinge, hit, kick, scream, bite, or spit? Do they display some kind of challenging behaviour that drives you up the wall?

If you answered yes, then Special Education teachers have a secret that will save your sanity!!!! They are faced with these kinds of challenges on a daily basis and utilise a behavoiur management strategy called Functional Assessment.

Functional Assessment is a systematic process for gathering information to understand why a child may be engaging in challenging behaviours. Knowledge of the challenging behaviour’s function is then instrumental in designing an effective behaviour intervention plan. Basically, when a child acts in a challenging way, their behaviour serves as a function. Once you have worked out what that function is, you can begin working out how to decrease the challenging behaviour. For Special Education teachers, this process is extremely thorough and time consuming. They utilise direct observations, interviews, and reviews of Individual Education Plans and medical records. For parents, however, it can be broken down into the following simple steps:

Simplified Step-by-Step Guide for Parents:

Think about a challenging behaviour that your child displays on an ongoing basis. It could be throwing a tantrum, screaming at high pitch, whinging, hitting others, not wanting to go to bed, always throwing food on floor, not getting dressed, swearing, biting…. and the list could go on and on!

Your child may display a number of challenging behaviours, but it is important just to work on one at a time. Make a list of the behaviours you would like to change and work on them in order of priority.

Step One : Examine what happens exactly before the challenging behaviour. Are there any environmental events or triggers that occur prior to the challenging behaviour? Some could include illness, fatigue, hunger, time of day, change in routine, family problems, presence of a certain person or transitions between activities.

Step Two: Examine what happens when the challenging behaviour occurs. What specifically does the child do; physically, emotionally, and/or verbally? What does everyone else do when the challenging behaviour occurs?

Step Three : Examine what happens after the challenging behaviour occurs. What exactly does the child get from acting this way? After excluding hunger, tiredness, illness etc., there are usually 3 things a child gets from a challenging behaviour:

  1. To get what they want (e.g. gaining attention from parent or sibling, being able to stay up later, get whatever toy/food/object that they desire)
  2. To avoid or escape something (Get out of doing chores/work, avoid going to a certain place/activity or escape social demands)
  3. Change the sensory input/output of a situation. (e.g. Screams to block out loud noises, taps on windows persistently to increase sensory output, has meltdowns when exposed to too much screen time). Sensory reasons are usually overlooked as a cause to challenging behaviour, but are often the case most of the time for children that are highly sensitive and those with Autistic Spectrum or Attention Deficit Disorder.

Step Four: Put it all Together. After observing and examining your child, what have you found out? Talk about with it others (your partner, grandparents etc.) and find out what they think too. Write it all down. It really helps just summarise everything and put it down on paper.

Step Five: Replace the Challenging Behaviour with a Positive Behaviour. Show them what you want them to do instead. Reinforce the positive behaviour with praise. Be OVER THE TOP at first. Give them an age appropriate reward for the new positive behaviour, but also introduce a consequence if they choose the challenging behaviour instead. Be consistent. It will only work if you are consistent.

Source : Pixabay
Source : Pixabay


Example 1: Max is 4 years old and his parents were tired of him throwing his food on the floor and having tantrums at dinnertime. On closer examination, his parents realised that he only did this on the days he had been to day-care and they concluded that he was extra tired on these days. As a result, they gave Max his dinner earlier on day-care days and the situation resolved itself and no further action was required.

Example 2: Josie is 3 years old and her parents had enough of her whinging and whining all the time. She used a high pitch whiny voice every time she wanted to get something. Her parents observed it was worse when she was at home with her mum. Her mum works from home and often gives in quickly to Josie’s demands, so that she can continue with her work. Both parents sat down with Josie and told her they don’t like to hear her whiny voice any more as it is making them sad and it hurts their ears. They explained that from now on if Josie wants something, she has to use her happy voice and ask nicely. If Josie asks for things nicely she will receive a sticker on her sticker chart. If Josie uses her whiny voice, her parents said they would give her one warning and if she continues with her whiny voice she would have to sit in time-out for 2 min. Her parents devoted themselves to the task of being consistent and after one weekend, Josie stopped using her whining voice. Initially, it was ALOT of work for her parents, but results far outweighed one weekend of hard work.

When responding to a challenging behaviour in your child, it is also vital to keep in mind whether the behaviour is a developmentally appropriate response to the situation. For example, it is certainly appropriate for a 10-month old baby to drop food on the floor because they are at a stage where they are experimenting with tastes/textures and linking actions together to form a sequence. However, this behaviour is not developmentally appropriate for a 4-year old who should already know better.

If you are not sure if you child’s behaviour is developmentally appropriate or not, see the following links for more information:

Aussie Childcare Network : Stages of Behaviour

Hey Sigmund : Phew! It’s Normal. An Age by Age Guide For What to Expect From Kids & Teens – And What They Need From Us

Michigan Medicine : Developmental Milestones

Watch this 16 min video for more information on understanding challenging behaviours in young children:

Children are amazing, yet complex little human beings. Please keep in mind that when your child displays a challenging behaviour, they are just trying to communicate a message to you. Sometimes that message can be incredibly obvious, but other times it takes a lot of detective work to figure it out. If you take the time to really observe, examine and analyse your child's behaviours you will be amazed at what you find out.

"The sign of great parenting is not the child's behaviour. The sign of great parenting is the parent's behaviour." Andy Smithson

What behaviours do you find the most challenging with your child?

See results


Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice. (2012). Functional Behavorial Assessment. Retrieved March 23, 2012, from Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice:

Chandler, L., & Dahliquist, C. (2010). Functional assessment : Strategies to prevent and remediate challenging behaviors in school settings. New Jersey: Pearson.

Cipani, E. (2007). Functional Behavioral Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Demar, G. (2009). Behaviorism. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from The Forerunner:

Heinman, M., Childs, K., & Sergay, J. (2006). Parenting with positive behavior support: A practical guide to resolving your child's difficult behavior. Baltimore: Paul H.Brooks.

Wright, P. (2009). Functional behavioral assessment, behavioral intervention plans and positive interventions and supports. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from Virginia Department of Education:

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)