No, it's not your fault. As an adult, your mother knows better and should demonstrate self-control. Name-calling is a juvenile behavior. When parents engage in it, they lose their position of authority in the family and are no longer seen as role models by their kids. No parenting expert in the entire universe would ever condone name calling as a tool for rearing children.
With that being said, it seems like you and your mother are in some twisted dance together. You cause problems at home, and then she calls you names. What is the payoff for you? Is it the attention that you get? After all, negative attention is better than no attention at all. What is her payoff? Does it make her feel powerful in a life that feels out of control?
The two of you need to have an honest, blunt conversation and vow to make changes. Tell her how hurtful the name-calling is. Ask her how you can be more helpful around the house and less problematic. Ask her how you can get attention for your positive behaviors, not your negative ones. Work together as a team to make your home a happy and peaceful place.
There's enough chaos and pain in the world. We need our homes to be sanctuaries. It's not unusual for parents to resort to name-calling when they're feeling stressed and overwhelmed. Ask your mom how you can relieve some of the burden from her shoulders. I wish you well with this!