Grandmothers get jealous of their granddaughters for the same “normal” reasons moms do: their youth, beauty, and sexuality and the enhanced opportunities they have to travel, pursue their education, get ahead in their careers, and create lives for themselves other than wife and mother. Grandmothers also get jealous of their granddaughters for “not-so-normal” reasons such as being mentally ill, being narcissistic, or being unusually selfish, shallow, and insecure.
However, as you say, grandmothers being jealous of their granddaughters isn't so pervasive and destructive that it's been studied and written about in books and articles. Since grandmothers and granddaughters don't live in the same home and don't interact on a daily basis, their relationship (problematic or not) is not seen as worthy of study.
In your particular situation, your father is the common denominator. Perhaps, he chose a wife similar to his mother or, perhaps, he behaves in ways that trigger a woman's possessiveness and jealousy. Perhaps, he's weak and the women in his life seek to control him.
If you step back from the situation and look at it objectively, you may be able to understand the dynamic in these relationships. It was probably there long before you were born. If you're struggling with this, you may want to talk with a therapist to gain insight. After all, It's hard to spot the dysfunction in our families because it's always been a part of our experience. We know nothing else.
It's wonderful that you're curious about this and aren't blaming yourself. I hope you find the answers you need.